Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a perennial, hairy, annual, or short-lived herb with grayish-green, irregular, wavy pinnate leaves. The flowers are cream-colored and bear red or yellow fruits. It is a self-pollinating plant.
Tomato is a fruit that is often treated as a vegetable. In Indian dishes, tomato is used in most preparations and its benefits far outweigh its uses. Tomato is a fruit that belongs to the Solanaceae family and is native to South and Central America. This fruit is packed with nutritional values. As an interesting fact, when the Europeans found a tomato, they thought it was a poisonous berry! All the credit really goes to the Spanish for bringing the tomato to the world: they introduced it to Europe and the Philippines, from where it spread to the rest of Southeast Asia. Now, India is the largest producer of tomatoes. And while most come in red, tomatoes come in a variety of colors, including purple! Tomatoes are very rich in natural vitamins and minerals. Vitamins include A, K, B1, B3, B5, B6, B7, and vitamin C. They also contain folate, iron, potassium, magnesium, chromium, choline, zinc, and phosphorus.
The highest tomato-producing states are Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Assam.
Shocking Benefits of Tomatoes
Good for the skin and hair | Tomato Farming
Faced with the increasing pollution, our skin and hair end up being the most affected. Including tomatoes in your normal diet really helps fight wear and tear on our skin. Tomatoes contain a substance called lycopene, which is also used in facial cleansers. And in addition to eating them as a salad, you can also peel the tomatoes and use the skin as a mask on your face. Clean and refresh your skin. And the vitamin A in tomatoes also protects your hair from external damage!
It is anti-carcinogenic | Tomato Farming
The lycopene in tomatoes is said to control the growth of cancer cells, especially cancer of the prostate, stomach, and colon. Cooking tomatoes actually increases lycopene production, so you can make as much curry as you like.
Good for bones | Tomato Farming
Did you know that tomatoes are rich in vitamin K and calcium? According to the US Department of Agriculture, one hundred grams of tomatoes contain 110 mg of calcium. That means your bones will stay strong as long as you eat tomatoes.
Repairs the damage caused by smoking | Tomato Farming
Kiwi is known to help our body when we stop smoking. But the coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid in tomatoes help protect the body from the negative effects of cigarette smoke, and that also applies to second-hand smokers.
It is a great antioxidant | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes are a good source of vitamin A and vitamin C. And these two components are good for the body. They help the body to get rid of harmful free radicals in our blood. However, to get vitamin C into the system, tomatoes must be eaten raw, so bring the salads.
Helps Your Heart | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes may not help heal a broken heart, but the vitamin A, vitamin B, and potassium they contain help lower cholesterol and blood. In the long term, it can prevent heart disease. So start shopping for tomatoes today.
Blood Sugar Controls | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes have a mineral in them called chromium. And did you know that chromium keeps blood sugar levels under control? For those who have or have a family history of diabetes, it is a good fruit to include in their diet.
Activates digestion | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes play an important part to improve the digestive system and liver. Tomatoes are loaded with fiber, which also helps prevent constipation. So if you’ve eaten too much or too spicy, take a bite of a small ripe tomato at the end of the meal!
Works on your immunity | Tomato Farming
This fruit is loaded with vitamin C. Fresh tomato juice is brilliant when it comes to boosting your immunity. The vitamin C it contains also controls the rise in stress hormones and helps your body stay energetic and healthy.
Helps burn fat | Tomato Farming
If you are on a diet, now is the time to include tomatoes as part of your daily regimen. Tomatoes promote the production of the amino acid carnitine, which is reported to increase the body’s ability to burn fat by at least 30 percent, if not more.
Soil | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes can be grown in a variety of soils, from sandy to very clayey. However, well-drained, sandy, or red-loam soils that are rich in organic matter and have a pH range of 6.07.0 are ideal.
Climate | Tomato Farming
Tomato is a harvest for the warm season. The best color and quality of the fruit is obtained in a temperature range of 21-24° C. Temperatures above 32 ° C have a detrimental effect on fruit set and development. Plants cannot tolerate frost and high humidity. It requires low to medium rains. Bright sunlight at the time of fruit set helps to develop dark red fruits. Temperatures below 10 ° C have a detrimental effect on plant tissue and therefore slow down physiological activities.
Preparation for growing | Tomato Farming
Bed preparation | Tomato Farming
Tomato seeds are sown in nursery beds to produce seedlings for field transplantation. Raised beds of 3 x 0.6 m and 1015 cm high are prepared. A distance of about 70 cm is maintained between two beds for irrigation, weed control, etc. Make sure that the surface of the beds is smooth and well leveled. Put sieved FYM and fine sand in the seedbed. Also, raised beds are necessary to avoid the problem of waterlogging in heavy soils. However, on sandy soils, sowing can be started in flatbeds. To prevent the seedlings from dying due to soaking, soak the seedbed first with water and then with Bavistin (1520 g / 10 liters of water).
Seeds are sown in June-July for autumn-winter cereals and for spring-summer cereals in November. In the hills, the seeds are sown in March and April.
Approximately 250,300 g of seeds is sufficient to grow seedlings on one hectare of land. Before sowing, the seeds are treated with a fungal culture of Trichoderma viride (4 g / kg of seeds) or Thiram (2 g / kg of seeds) to avoid damage from steam disease. Sowing should be done in thin rows 1015 cm apart. The seeds are sown to a depth of 23 cm and covered with a thin layer of soil, followed by light irrigation with a jug of water. The beds should then be covered with dry straw or grass or reed leaves to maintain the required temperature and humidity. Watering should be done with a pitcher of water as needed until germination is complete. Dry straw or grass cover is removed immediately after germination is complete. During the last week in the nursery, the seedlings can be hardened by slightly retaining water.
Seedlings with 56 actual leaves are ready for transplanting within 4 days after sowing.
Tillage | Tomato Farming
The field is finely plowed by making four to five plows with enough space between two plows. Parquet must be made for correct leveling. The grooves are then opened with the recommended spacing. Well decomposed FYM (25 t / ha) is fully incorporated into soil preparation.
Distance | Tomato Farming
The distance depends on the variety grown and the time of sowing. Usually, the seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 7590 x 4560 cm.
Planting method | Tomato Farming
Seedlings are planted in rows on light soils and on the sides of ridges on heavy soils. The previous irrigation is carried out 34 days before the transplant. Before planting, the seedlings should be soaked in a solution of Nuvacron (15 ml) and Dithane M 45 (25 g) in 10 liters of water for 56 minutes. The transplant should preferably be done at night.
Irrigation | Tomato Farming
Tomatoes are very sensitive to the use of water. Abundant watering after a long dry spell causes the fruit to break. Therefore, it should be avoided. It should be watered lightly 34 days after transplanting. Irrigation intervals should correspond to the type of soil and rainfall; irrigation should be 78 days in Kharif, 10 to 12 days in Rabi and 56 days in summer.
Flowering and fruit development are, therefore, the critical stages of tomatoes; Water stress should not be managed during this time.
Harvesting | Tomato Farming
Depending on the variety, the fruits are ready for the first harvest around 6070 days after transplanting. The harvest stage depends on the purpose of the fruit. The different stages of harvest are as follows:
- Dark green color: The dark green color changes and a reddish-pink hue is observed in the fruits. At this time, the fruits to be shipped are harvested. These fruits are then sprayed with ethylene 48 hours before shipment. Unripe green tomatoes ripen poorly and are of poor quality. An easy way to determine ripeness is to cut the tomato with a sharp knife. When the seeds are cut, the fruit is too immature to harvest and does not ripen properly.
- Breaker phase: Pale pink color in ¼ of the fruit. The fruits are harvested at this stage to ensure the best quality. These fruits are less prone to damage in transit and often command a higher price than less ripe tomatoes.
- Pink phase: A pink color is observed in ¾ part of the fruit.
- Reddish-pink fruits are rigid and almost whole fruits turn reddish-pink. During this phase, the fruits are harvested for local sale.
- Fully ripped: Fruits are fully ripe and smooth with a dark red color. These fruits are used for processing.
Fruits are generally harvested early in the morning or in the evening. The fruits are harvested by rotating the movements of the hands to separate the fruit from the stem. Harvested fruits should only be stored in baskets or boxes and in the shade. Since not all fruits ripen at the same time, they are harvested every 4 days. Overall, there will be 711 crops in a crop life.