These days, Polyhouse farming has gained sudden popularity in India. Farmers realized that they can make a huge profit by doing Polyhouse farming. But still, this is a new concept in our country. So many people are not fully aware of what this is, how it works and what are its advantages and disadvantages.
Polyhouse is a type of greenhouse in which a special polyethylene film is used as a covering material under which plants can be grown under partially or fully controlled climatic conditions.
Traditionally, greenhouses were built on wooden frames, and glass was used as a cladding material. With the advancement of plastic technology, it became possible to replace glass with plastic. Polyhouse houses are best suited for tropical and subtropical regions like India.
Modern Polyhouses will build to G.I. Steel structure and are covered with plastic, which is fixed to the frame with aluminum clips. The white plastic film used for covering is of high quality; 200 microns thick, with a 3-year warranty against UV breakdown and inclement weather. Most often, a drip irrigation system is installed in a polyethylene house for irrigation purposes.
A subsidy is a form of financial support or support to an economic sector, which is generally used to promote economic and social policy. There are 2 types of Subsidies for Polyhouses, Fan & Pad Polyhouses and Net Houses as indicated below.
Subsidy Agency: National Horticulture Board (NHB)
The client can receive a grant of 50% of the total cost of the project, including multi-purpose housing construction, drip and mist system, bed preparation material and costs labour, planting material costs, basic infrastructure like packing room, sprinkler room, workrooms, etc.
Subsidy Agency: National Horticulture Mission (NHM)
The client can only receive a 50% subsidy for the construction of multi-family homes and drip and mist systems in accordance with the rates established by the respective state horticulture department. If the state government has more funds, it can release funds for the systems, but this is not absolutely necessary.
Difference between greenhouse and Polyhouse
Polyhouse is a kind of greenhouse or we can say that it is a smaller version of the greenhouse that uses polyethylene as a cover. In developing countries like India, polyethylene agriculture is a popular greenhouse technology due to its low construction costs and ease of maintenance. The slat house is another greenhouse technology that uses wood as a covering.
Polyhouse is cheaper compared to the greenhouse, but the latter is more durable than Polyhouse.
Advantages of Polyhouse farming
This method is proven to be very beneficial for farmers in many ways and that is how Polyhouse farming is gaining its popularity. Especially the farmers doing organic farming prefer Polyhouse farming.
- Your crops are grown at a controlled temperature, so there is less chance of crops being lost or damaged.
- You can grow crops all year long instead of waiting for a specific time of year.
- There are fewer pests and insects in a polyethylene house.
- The external climate does not influence plant growth.
- The quality of the products is obviously higher in polyhouse.
- Good drainage and ventilation
- Ornamental plants can also be propagated effortlessly in a polyethylene house.
- Poly House provides its plants with the right environmental facilities at any time of the year.
- Also increases performance by 5 to 10 times.
- Shorter growing time
- The application of fertilizer is easier and is controlled automatically with the help of drip irrigation.
Disadvantages of Polyhouse farming
- The cost of production is very high and requires a significant initial capital investment.
- Polyhouse cultivation is intensive maintenance agriculture and requires constant vigilance.
- Technical knowledge is essential to the operation of a polygon house, and a qualified manager and a trained worker are required for day-to-day operations.
- Polyhouse farming is overly reliant on chemical fertilizers and pesticides, yet there is less scope for organic farming.
Types of Polyhouse
On the basis of environmental control system
- Naturally ventilated polyhouse: This type of polyhouse or greenhouse does not have an environmental control system other than adequate ventilation and a fog system to protect plants from adverse weather conditions and natural pests and diseases.
- Environmentally Controlled Polyhouse: They are primarily designed to extend plant growth time or off-season performance by controlling light, temperature, humidity, etc.
On the basis of shape
- Even span
- Uneven span
- Ridge and furrow
On the basis of suitability and cost
- Low cost
- Medium cost
- High cost
Crops that are grown in Polyhouse
- Vegetable crops: Cabbage, bitter gourd, paprika, radish, cauliflower, chili, coriander, onion, spinach, tomato, lettuce, etc.
- Fruit crops: Watermelons, Peaches, Raspberries, Strawberries, Papaya, and all citrus fruits.
- Herbs: Turmeric and Ginger
Components and characteristics of a Polyhouse
Polyethylene: Polyhouses are made of transparent, dense, inexpensive, and flexible polyethylene. Temperature and humidity are easy to regulate in polyethylene houses as they prevent the escape of thermal radiation, which increases temperature and energy and therefore supports the photosynthesis process. It is well known that for the production of energy vegetables, polyethylene houses are built using a UV plastic film so that they can last more than 5 years.
Heating system: In the cooler season, it generally warms up. Usually, solar energy is sufficient to maintain the playhouse’s interior temperature, but it is not enough, cover the north wall of the polyhouse with jute clothing, cover the entire polyhouse with jute clothing during the day and night, install solar heating systems, etc. it can be considered will.
Cooling system: In the summer season, when the ambient temperature rises during the day, the polyethylene house is cooled by adequate ventilation and the natural removal of air inside the polyethylene house or by installing high-performance fans. A water mist mechanism can also be installed.
Shade system: Certain plants are damaged by the very high light intensity in summer. Generally, shade paints, shade screens, or retractable thermal barriers are used.
Watering System: Water quality is very important and is often overlooked. Water sources should be tested before building a polyethylene house. Micro-irrigation systems such as drip irrigation or sprinklers can be used. For drip irrigation the following equipment is required:
- A pump unit to generate a pressure of 2.8 kg / cm²
- Water filtration systems and / silicate filters/sieve
- PVC hose with drippers or emitters
Fertigation: It ranges from the individual application of fertilizers to the use of soluble fertilizers through various operating systems. General fertigation problems Nitrogen tends to accumulate at the edge of the volume of wet soil. Therefore, the roots in the peripheral humid zone have more access to nitrogen. Nitrogen is lost through leaching and denitrification. Phosphorus accumulates in the emitter and the phosphor’s binding capacity determines the efficiency. Potassium moves sideways and down and does not accumulate near the emitter.