How organic farming enrich the soil?

Soil fertility in organic farming systems entails more than merely delivering macro- and micronutrients to plants. Plants, soil organic matter (SOM), and soil biology are all factors in effective fertility management. Organic farming systems are ideally suited to improve soil fertility in order to meet numerous aims. Important objectives include: protecting and, if feasible, improving soil physical condition so that the soil can support healthy plants and soil-dwelling organisms and resist and recover from shocks such as flooding or aggressive plowing; the preservation of soil buffering capacity in order to reduce environmental degradation caused by soil loss or soils’ failure to filter nutrients or degrade harmful compounds; and increased water and nutrient use efficiency by increasing biological fixation and retention of needed nutrients while decreasing their loss from leaching.

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1. Greater Matter

Soils rich in organic matter hold more air and water and yield more than soils deficient in organic matter. They also provide a consistent supply of nutrients to plants, prevent erosion, and support a diverse population of beneficial bacteria. Organic matter is increased and preserved by adding compost, utilizing cover crops and mulches, and restricting tillage—basic principles of organic soil management.

An examination of nine years of National Soil Project data from nearly all 50 states revealed that organically managed soils had an average organic matter content of 8.33 percent, whereas conventionally managed soils had an average of 7.37 percent.

2. Nitrogen Fixing

Nodules that grow on legume roots contain bacteria that collect nitrogen from the air and fix it in the soil, allowing the following crop in the rotation to absorb it as a fertilizer. According to preliminary findings by Rodale Institute researchers in 2017, soybean plants cultivated in organic fields may produce a greater number of fine roots and, as a result, a more numerous and broad production of nitrogen-fixing nodules than soybeans grown in conventionally managed fields.

The scientists hypothesize that because typical fields have an abundance of readily available nitrogen (thanks to the addition of synthetic fertilizers), plants grown in them do not require as many fine roots to acquire nutrients from the soil.

3. Microbe Control

A healthy population of beneficial soil microorganisms enhances nutrient and water availability and aids in the suppression of diseases. According to a study published in Frontiers in Microbiology, soils from organically managed farms have greater and more diversified populations of beneficial soil organisms than soils from conventionally managed farms. Taiwanese researchers discovered similar results in banana plantation soils and published their findings in Applied Soil Ecology.

What Are The Basics Of Organic Farming?

4. Uncultivated Areas

Permanent pastures in southern Sweden were found to have higher levels of AMF variety than cultivated areas. Among the cultivated fields, organically managed fields had more biological activity than conventionally managed fields, indicating that tillage and other methods can encourage or discourage AMF populations.

Similarly, Italian researchers discovered that areas in a high-density olive orchard that were kept with a permanent green cover crop for 10 years had more AMF activity than fields that were maintained with shallow tillage.

5. Carbon Capture and Storage

The advantages of high organic matter levels in the soil extend beyond the farm. Organic matter is high in carbon, and carbon locked up in the soil is not released into the atmosphere, where rising quantities may destabilize our climate.

According to the National Soil Project data analysis published in Advances in Agronomy by Misiewicz and others, organic farming methods promote not just higher levels of soil organic matter but also of humified (sequestered) carbon (4.1 percent versus 2.85 percent of total soil volume). Furthermore, organically managed soils have a larger percentage of sequestered organic matter than conventionally managed soils.

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Conclusion

Planting hairy vetch cover crops can provide all of the nitrogen that field corn requires for the best output. When hairy vetch biomass is scarce, however, adding a feather meal or poultry meal may increase yields. AMF colonization may be aided by methods other than maintaining a living cover crop and restricting tillage. Spraying young bean shoots with an anaerobically fermented mixture of fresh water, cattle manure, cow’s milk, sugarcane molasses, and mineral salts stimulates AMF colonization and increases mineral availability in the soil, according to Brazilian researchers published in the Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science.