Grapes Farming

Grapes are real berries. The pericarp is always fleshy. Fruits can be green, red, and deep purple in color. Grape harvest is a deciduous woody vine of the genus of flowering plants Vitis. This plant is a perennial shrub with propellers – tendrils and trails. The grape is a vine, a climbing plant. The tendrils, which are degenerate inflorescences, grow on the stems.

Grapes Farming

Leaves are heart-shaped. They are tall and face each other. They show strong nerves. The color, size, and shape of the leaves and fruits vary according to the variety. They are seedless and different varieties of seedless. The pitted variety can have up to 4 seeds per fruit. The seeds have 46% tannins.

Grapes are an important commercial fruit crop in South India. Viticulture (Study and cultivation of grapes) is considered the most profitable business. The crop is particularly important in northern India, Punjab. Due to the high initial investment in the installation of the formation system and the appearance of rains when the grapes are ripening, the vineyard area is not allowed to grow further. In the Madhurai area, the fruit is carried through a staggered cut throughout the year.

Origin of grapes

Vitis vinifera is the most important species cultivated in India; the grapes come from Armenia near the Caspian Sea. In India, grapes were imported from Iran and Afghanistan in the late 12th century.

Grape producing states of India

Maharashtra is on top to produce grapes in India. Grape farming is widespread in the Nasik, Pune, Ahmednagar, Sangli, Osmanabad, Solapur, and Satara state districts.

Nasik is called the wine capital of India. It also has a grape packing plant.

According to Maharashtra, the grape harvest is widespread in the Kolar, Bangalore, and Bijapur areas of Karnataka, Rangareddy, Ananthapur, and Medak in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Health Benefits of Grapes:

  • Grapes have antioxidants like polyphenols, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One of the polyphenols is resveratrol, which is found in grape skins, preferably red grapes.
  • A couple of studies suggest that resveratrol can prevent or slow the growth of tumors in the stomach, liver, breast, colon, lymph, and skin, and prevent leukemia.
  • According to the American Heart Association (AHA), the presence of fiber and potassium in grapes helps with cardiovascular health and blood pressure. Resveratrol can reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and protect the heart.
  • The fiber and water content in grapes helps with good bowel movements and treats constipation.
  • Contrary to popular belief, diabetics can eat grapes. The American Diabetes Association encourages the consumption of grapes as long as you eat in moderation.

Organic Fruits & Vegetables

Varieties of Grapes

More than 20 grape varieties are grown in India. Only 12 varieties are grown commercially.

The following are the names of those varieties:

  • Black seeds: Bangalore Blue, Isabella
  • Violet seeds: Gulabi (Muscat)
  • White seeds: AnabeShahi and Dilkhush (this is the clone of the AnabeShahi variety), Bhokri
  • Black Seedless: Sharad Seedless, Beauty Seedless
  • White Seedless: Thompson Seedless, Pusa Seedless, Perlette, TasAGanesh, and Sonaka (these are Thompson Seedless clones) and Manik Chaman
  • Red Seedless: Flame Seedless
  • Violet Seedless: Gulabi Syn, Muscat Hamburg
  • Black Seedless: Sharad Seedless (this is a Kishmish Chomi mutant)

Currently, Thompson Seedless (together with its clones) is the leading grape variety, accounting for 55% of the cultivated area.

Bangalore Blue, Dilkhush, and AnabeShahi make up 15 ch, Perlette and Sharad Seedless make up 5 percent each, and Bhokri and Gulabi together make up 5% of the total production area.

Required Climate

Grapes are a very versatile crop. It can be grown in almost all climates, namely:

Temperate: in America, Australia, Russia, and Europe.

Tropical: in the west and south of India, Argentina, Chile, Kenya, and Venezuela.

Subtropical: in northern India, China, Pakistan, Israel, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan.

The Mediterranean climate is the best for growing grapes.

The grapevines remain evergreen in a tropical climate. Harvest goes well in the area that receives little or no rain while the fruit is ripening.

Required Soil

Viticulture can be done in different types of soil.

Best soil: well-drained sandy to loamy soil with good organic matter. Soil pH should be below pH 8.7. It should have a lime concentration of up to 20% and calcium carbonate of up to 10%.

Alkaline soils with poor drainage are not suitable.

Grapes Farming

Grapes planting method:

 Soil tillage:

The soil is tilled. The holes are prepared at reasonable intervals, as the vines are usually planted in holes. The depth of the holes varies from 60 cm to 90 cm.

The fields depend on the type and type of training system.

You must prepare the hole and keep it open for 30 days before planting.

Best Sowing Time:

  • In North India, the best time is between February and March
  • In the Indian peninsula, the best time is between November and January
  • In Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, the best time is between December and January

There is generally no viticulture during monsoons.

The grape plant begins to grow 1015 days after sowing. Grape growth begins earlier in the warm season than in the cold season.

Just one month after planting the seeds, the plants need to be staking and training.

Training Systems in Grape crops

Bower System: Most popular for commercial viticulture. Approximately 80% of the vines are governed by this system.

Kniffin System: Cheaper, but also less popular because performance is lower with this system.

Telephone System: Looks like a telephone pole with wires and all, hence the name. It is not very suitable for hot and dry places as the berries get sunburned.

Head System: Most economical, with very tight spacing, fewer diseases, and larger berry size.

Pruning

Pruning is carried out when the vines are at rest. If the grapes are grown in the mild tropics, they are pruned twice. It is also harvested twice. 4,444 varieties such as Bangalore Blue and Gulabi show reasonable resistance to rain damage. Grapes Farming

Therefore, the cut can be carried out at any time of the year. Grapes Farming

In the warm tropics there are two prunings, but one harvest. Pruning takes place between March and May. The vines are pruned in a single knot. They develop canes that are then pruned between October and November to induce fruiting. Grapes Farming

Hydroponics Farming: All about it

Irrigation

Irrigation practices differ in different regions. It depends on pruning time, monsoon pattern, soil water holding capacity, variety, training system, and distance. Grapes Farming

  • Water the vineyard once every 3 days on a newly planted crop. Grapes Farming
  • With drip irrigation, a single bulb is placed at the base of the vine. Later it is increased to 2 and then to 4. Grapes Farming
  • Immediately after cutting, water vigorously to moisten the entire root zone and trigger active growth. Grapes Farming
  • In winter, the harvest requires light watering every 10 to 12 days. Grapes Farming
  • If it rains, the next watering will be skipped or delayed. Grapes Farming
  • Watering frequency is reduced during fruiting, flowering, and after berries softens to improve fruit quality. Grapes Farming

Weed management:

Weeds growing between the rows of vines are uprooted by tractor-drawn weed control equipment. Weeds within the rows are manually removed.

In mature vineyards, sometimes around 2 kg/ha of the main glyphosate or around 7.5 kg/ha of paraquat are sprayed. Grapes Farming

Pests and Diseases:

Thrips, wasps, and flea beetles are the main insects in viticulture. Spray dimethoat, dichlorovas, and endosulfan for insect control. Grapes Farming

Black rot, powdery mildew, downy mildew, late blight, and wilt are the main diseases.

A new naturally occurring fungicide is available for wine and table grapes.

Grapes Harvesting

In northern Indian grape cultivation, fruit formation takes place 2 years after sowing. Ripening takes place at the end of May. Grapes Farming

Rice Farming: Complete Guide from Seeds to Harvest

The flavor is an important indicator of fruit maturity. The berries ripen from the shoulders, then from the middle, and finally from the top of the grape.

Harvesting generally occurs when the fruits change color and turn sweet at their tips.

Best harvest time: early in the day when the temperature is below 20 degrees Celsius.

One day before harvest, the rotten, broken, deformed, and undersized berries are picked. Grapes Farming

Yield:

Yield varies by climate and variety. An average yield between 20 t / ha and 25 t / ha is considered good.

Storage:

Grapes can be kept for one week at room temperature.

Shelf life can be extended by suitable methods. With optimal storage, AnabeShahi can stay fresh for 40 days, Thompson Seedless for 30 to 60 days, and Muscat for 45 days. Grapes Farming

Best storage conditions: temperature 0 degrees Celsius and humidity 92 to 96%. Grapes Farming