Types of Farming in India

Agriculture and farming are an important part of the Indian economy. Our country is currently one of the two main agricultural producers in the world. This farming sector gives around 52 percent of the total number of jobs available in India and contributes around 18.1 percent of GDP. Agriculture is the sole livelihood for almost two-thirds of India’s workforce. As economic data for fiscal year 200607 shows, agriculture generated 18 percent of India’s GDP. The agricultural sector of India occupies almost 43 percent of the geographical area of   India. Types of Farming in India

9 Major Types of Farming in India

Farming and farmers are an integral part of our daily lives. Farmers are the backbone of agriculture. So support agriculture and save nature because we have nowhere else to live. Types of Farming in India

The average growth of agricultural products in India is Rs 86,140 crore between 1991 and 2021, the highest output in agribusiness in 2019 at Rs 284.83 billion in March and the lowest output growth rate of 4.95 billion rupees in October 1991. Indian prepared agri-food is exported to more than 120 countries. By resources in 2020, India ranks 74th out of 113 countries in agribusiness. Indian grocery and grocery stores ranked sixth in the world. Types of Farming in India

Farmers can produce a wide variety of food using different types of agricultural techniques. However, this cultivation technique depends on several aspects such as the type of soil, climatic conditions, available resources, etc. Types of Farming in India

Types of Crops

Plants grown in India can be divided into 4 categories:

  1. Food crops (wheat, rice, maize, millet, and legumes)
  2. Cash crops (cotton, jute, sugar cane, tobacco, and oilseeds)
  3. Plantations (tea, coffee, coconut, and chewing gum)
  4. Horticultural crops such as fruits and vegetables

According to the seasons, the plants of India were divided into the following categories:

  1. Rabi Plants:

Rabi Plants are grown in Spring Harvest or Winter Harvest in India. It is sown in October of each year and harvested in March of each year. Wheat, barley, mustard, sesame, peas, etc. are the main Rabi plants in India. Types of Farming in India

  1. Kharif Crops:

In India, Kharif Crop is the summer or monsoon crop. Kharif plants are generally planted at the beginning of the first rain in July. India’s main crops in Kharif include millet (Bajra and Jowar), cotton, soybeans, sugar cane, turmeric, husk (rice), corn, moong (legumes), peanuts, red chili peppers, etc.

  1. Zaid Crops:

This crop is grown in some parts of the country from March to June. Prominent examples are cantaloupe, watermelon, vegetables from the gourd family, such as bitter gourd, striated gourd, etc. Types of Farming in India

// LIst 9 Major Types of Farming in India

  1. Primitive Subsistence Agriculture:

This is an ancient type of agriculture in which agriculture is practiced in a specific or defined area where farmers grow their crops. Farmers can produce food for their own use, not for sale. In India, subsistence agriculture is practiced in Kerala, the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • Not expensive.
  • Organic farming.

Cons:

  • It depends on the monsoon.
  • It diminishes the natural fertility of the soil.

2. Commercial Agriculture:

The commercial cultivation method aims to have the plantation and livestock for sale in the commercial market. A large part of the area is required for commercial agriculture. In our country, commercial type of agriculture is practiced mainly in urban areas such as Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • Promotion of the improvement of local infrastructure.
  • Job creation.
  • Reduction of product prices and manufacturing prices.
  • Greater food security and increased production.
  • Reduction of production costs.
  • Earn foreign currency.

Cons:

  • Shortage of land.
  • It is difficult for newcomers.
  • Plants are biodegradable.
  • Dangerous for the environment.

3. Dry farming:

Dry farming is also known as rain-fed agriculture. It consumes the maximum amount of water in the soil and without an additional water supply. Soil moisture is low in rain-fed agriculture. In India, this type of agriculture is practiced mainly in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • Increased short-term profits for farmers.
  • Increase in agricultural production.
  • Increase of soil organic matter.
  • Reduce soil erosion.
  • Improved profitability and long-term productivity of dry farming.

Cons:

  • The problem is the production of the crop in a dry land.
  • Insufficient and unbalanced precipitation distribution.
  • Late entry and early end of rains.
  • Extend dry spells during the harvest season.
  • Favourable moisture management ability.
  • Favourable fertility of soils.

4. Wet Farming:

The word wet farming defines itself since it almost depends on the rains. Generally, this type of agriculture is practiced in the east, northeast, and north of India. Plants such as mango, rose, chikku, guava, custard, soursop, tamarind, strawberry, pomegranate, fig, jackfruit, etc. are grown mainly in wet crops. Types of Farming in India 

Pros:

  • Harvest yield is high.
  • Helps the farmer to monitor and observe the land and protect it from dangerous wildlife.

Cons:

  • Tragedy occurs when floods are so severe that the rice crop is destroyed.
  • The monsoon rains ‘a a lot’ and kills the rice harvest.

Organic farming certification process in India

5. Agricultural Relocation:

Agricultural relocation is also known as a relocation culture, which allows farming to continue on a property for a temporary period after it is abandoned. This type of agriculture is practiced mainly in the mountainous regions of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Nagaland. In shifting cultivation, crops such as corn, millet, cotton, rice, etc. are grown. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • It is a traditional farming method that cleans, burns, and cultivates a piece of land.
  • It is a very simple and fast preparation method for land and agriculture.

Cons:

  • During hiking cultivation, many trees are cut down in the forest.
  • Increased infertility of the soil leads to soil erosion.

6. Plantation economy:

The plantation economy is annual agriculture that occurs on the land for at least one year. It is also known as commercial agriculture because the harvest is mainly used in factories or small industries. In India, the plantation economy is practiced mainly in Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, and Bihar. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • More job opportunities for the local population.
  • There is an income for a country.
  • Plants are produced on a very large scale.
  • Large parcels are managed logically and economically.

Cons:

  • Managing plantations is bad for the environment.
  • Overexploitation and lack of crop rotation reduce soil fertility and increase soil erosion. Types of Farming in India

7. Intensive agriculture:

Intensive agriculture is also known as intensive agriculture, which uses a large number of fertilizers, labour, and pesticides in the field of agriculture. But intensive farming causes a lot of pollution and also damages the environment compared to organic farming. Intensive agriculture is practiced in West Bengal, Kerala, the coast of Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu in India. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • In intensive agriculture, the operating performance is extremely high.
  • Cultivating the land becomes easier.
  • Fruits and vegetables are cheaper in intensive cultivation techniques.

Cons:

  • Increases pollution from the use of a variety of fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Another disadvantage of industrial agriculture is the overcrowding of livestock.
  • Intensive agriculture has a negative impact on the environment.

8. Mixed and multiple farming:

Mixed crops are also known as mixed crops. In this type of agriculture, farmers grow different types of crops, but more than once together on the same land. In India, this type of agriculture is commonly practiced in Odisha and Kerala. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • Farmers can maintain constant production in their fields.
  • Increases the productivity of arable land.
  • Increases profitability per capita.
  • Increases farmer productivity.
  • Reduces dependence on inputs and external costs.

Cons:

  • It is very difficult to concentrate fertilization on individual crops.
  • Spraying pesticides on individual plants is difficult.
  • It is not possible to collect and separate plants.

9. Vertical farming:

With vertical farming, plants are grown indoors, which requires artificial light and temperature. This type of agriculture in India is practiced mainly in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai without the use of soil or pesticides. Types of Farming in India

Pros:

  • Ensures constant crop production.
  • Makes optimal use of space.
  • Reduces water consumption.
  • Reduce the cost of transportation.
  • Labour costs are
  • Lower in energy productivity.

Cons:

  • High initial costs.
  • Importance of effective costs.
  • High energy efficiency.
  • Increase in labour costs.
  • Significant conservation efforts.